Besides voltage, batteries are rated by amp hours (AH). Although voltage seems to get the most attention, the amp hour rating of the battery is just as important. It is the measure of a battery’s capacity and provides a good indication of the range you can expect from an electric bike. Although lots of factors come into play in determining range (ie: rider weight, terrain, input, efficiency, etc.), a good rule of thumb is range is equal to AH. So under normal conditions, an average rider can expect 10 miles out of a 10AH battery (with no pedaling). With rider input, this number can be dramatically increased, so most 10AH batteries are rated “up to 20 miles” by the manufacturer which assumes pedaling. On pedal-assist bikes (which require pedaling), the range ratings are much higher because the rider is constantly assisting the motor and reducing the current draw.
Cargo bikes and city bikes are common in the e-bike space, but until recently we haven’t seen that many performance road bikes. The Giant Road E+1 is a pedal-assist performance road bike that’s made for more than just commuting; the powerful motor can crank you up to 28 mph very quickly on the highest setting so you can rip the flats, join your local group ride, or blast through the mountains with far less effort than a traditional road bike. It won’t feel like a 16-pound race bike when you lean it into high-speed turns, but the endurance-oriented geometry allows for an aggressive position on the bike and keeps it nimble and agile at high speed.
Would an e-bike that used a trailing generator to power the electric motor still be considered an e-bike? The purpose of the generator is allow greater distances to be traveled and all day riding. The gen-set that I am looking at uses a 49 cc gas engine with a 12 volt generator, this would be from the ground up build using a 1 hp electric motor. This seems to stay within the state laws of AZ. where I reside. Thanks for your thoughts.

The other motor is the G311, a front equivalent to the wonderfully silent G310 rear motors we introduced late last year. This motor will be replacing the G01 hub for our front mini geared kits. It's a tad lighter (2.3kg), much quieter (spiral gears!), but still has the features from the G01 that we loved. That means a side cable exit, ISO disk rotor compatibility, and 10mm round axle.
Controllers for brushless motors: E-bikes require high initial torque and therefore models that use brushless motors typically have Hall sensor commutation for speed and angle measurement. An electronic controller provides assistance as a function of the sensor inputs, the vehicle speed and the required force. The controllers generally allow input by means of potentiometer or Hall Effect twist grip (or thumb-operated lever throttle), closed-loop speed control for precise speed regulation, protection logic for over-voltage, over-current and thermal protection. Bikes with a pedal assist function typically have a disc on the crank shaft featuring a ring of magnets coupled with a Hall sensor giving rise to a series of pulses, the frequency of which is proportional to pedaling speed. The controller uses pulse width modulation to regulate the power to the motor. Sometimes support is provided for regenerative braking but infrequent braking and the low mass of bicycles limits recovered energy. An implementation is described in an application note for a 200 W, 24 V Brushless DC (BLDC) motor.[43]
I discovered these downsides when, on my third day with the bike, I got a flat tire and had to carry it onto the subway with me for those last few miles back to my apartment. The cause of the flat is unknown; the bike mechanic who eventually fixed it didn’t see anything wrong with the rims. But the experience of trying to maneuver an almost 40 pound e-bike on and off a crowded subway car during rush-hour is not one I can recommend.
Cargo bikes and city bikes are common in the e-bike space, but until recently we haven’t seen that many performance road bikes. The Giant Road E+1 is a pedal-assist performance road bike that’s made for more than just commuting; the powerful motor can crank you up to 28 mph very quickly on the highest setting so you can rip the flats, join your local group ride, or blast through the mountains with far less effort than a traditional road bike. It won’t feel like a 16-pound race bike when you lean it into high-speed turns, but the endurance-oriented geometry allows for an aggressive position on the bike and keeps it nimble and agile at high speed.

Play it Safe, Make it Easy – E-bike manufacturers will offer you a large variety of styles, types, colors and utility, but the base specifications will be a bike producing less than 750 watts of power (1 horsepower = 746W) , and have its speed limited to 20mph on motor power alone. The majority of US ebikes meet that specification. Manufacturers do this for their own liability. Going this route assures you that your bike was built and sold legally. As a result, you will have about every privilege that a normal bicycle can expect. However, state and local laws may dictate reduced speeds and limited access to bike paths.
Electric Motorcycles News (EMN) has been launched in March 2017 and is a personal initiative from graphic designer Guy Salens (Belgium) to inform you about electric motorcycles, electric scooters and some offroad performance e-bikes. EMN collects and publishes all kind of info from available sources on the internet: press releases, existing website content from manufacturers. EMN has also developed a search engine where you can search for e-dealers with your specific keywords, in different countries, different brands and/or categories.
When you have the electric motor turned on, it engages with your first push of the pedals. The difference in acceleration is startling compared to any other bike I've ridden. In Eco mode, I could sprint from 0 to 20mph in about 200 feet/65m. Switch to Turbo, and it's about 150/30m feet. As I mentioned above, you still have to pedal. The difference with an electric bike is the feeling of getting more bang for the buck. And if you want to be lazy, you can. Stay in third or fourth gear and you'll be able to stay around 18-19mph with minimal effort. But if you want to go much faster than 20mph, you'll need to work.
We are kicking off this series with a quick look at Keith Forbes. Keith showed up unannounced at our shop a year and a half ago, asking if there may be any work opportunities as he was considering a move to Vancouver from Trinidad and had something of a personal interest in transportation technology. We'll let the video show what he's been up to since then!

It should be noted that the definition as written does not define the power of the motor in Watts as is conventionally done for electric bicycles but rather in brake horsepower. Thus for an electric bicycle, motor kit, or electric bicycle motor that is not rated by the manufacture in brake horsepower but rather in Watts a conversion must be made in the units a conversion which is not given in the code of the law and thus the court will have to consider a factor of conversion that is not directly encoded in the law. Industry standard conversion for Watts to horsepower for electric motors is 1 horsepower = 746 watts.[105] Acceptance of that conversion factor from industry, however, as interpretation of the law is subject to the process of the courts since it is not defined specifically in the law.

The battery is the pedelec’s power source. It supplies the motor with the electrical energy that is required to provide power assistance when cycling. So it is hardly surprising that there is frequent discussion and “talking shop” about the eBike’s battery in particular. What is the difference between batteries? How far can you go on a fully charged battery? What do you have to remember about storage? Thomas Raica, head of technical customer application, here provides information and advice.


The last 8 months we've been wrapping up some long duration testing of Statorade across different hub motor lines and performing experiments confirming its long term stability. These results have us pumped to introduce this motor cooling solution beyond DIY'ers and into wider markets. As an example, have a look at the video we below showing the effect this has on a small direct drive folding bike motor.
What I found most interesting is how my cycling habits changed over my two weeks with the eBike, mostly for the better. In most states, cyclists need to come to a complete stop at stop signs... and as anyone who has ever ridden a bike or shared a road with a cyclist knows, most cyclists generally do an Idaho Stop if they believe it's safe. I do it, too. Knowing that I could quickly get back up to speed with the aid of the electric motor, I found myself more willing to sacrifice my forward momentum and come to a complete stop when there was a car approaching an intersection.
This article did a good job of trying to justify the assist speed limits but fell short of detailing how that can ever be effectively enforced. In reality the only enforcement that is going to work is applied speed limits to use of bikes and ebikes. For example, it makes sense that a bike lane on a street that the speed limit of vehicles is the speed limit of the bikes/ebikes. On sidewalks and shared pedestrian paths the speed limit probably does need to be in the 15-20mph range to match traditional bikes speeds on those paths.
We'll start this off with the latest two Customer Profile videos. In the first one we follow up from the well received Leigh Cross video with a look at his son, Tig Cross. Tig's been refining an original bike concept combining the best parts of an ebike, scooter, and velomobile, and showcases the merits of an electric generator for the human drivertrain.
In a parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned 1897 invention by Hosea W. Libbey, human and motor inputs are mechanically coupled either in the bottom bracket, the rear wheel, or the front wheel, whereas in a (mechanical) series hybrid cycle, the human and motor inputs are coupled through differential gearing. In an (electronic) series hybrid cycle, human power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional electricity is supplied from a battery.
State and Local Laws dictate your use, but cannot constitutionally supersede the federal law – Any ebike purchased within the 750W/20mph limits has no fear of being under federal motor vehicle classification, nor can any state classify them a motor vehicle. The ebike is considered a ‘bicycle’ for consumer purposes. However, the State Laws on local bike paths and local thruways may prohibit or limit ebike access. When bike path signs use word such as ‘motor vehicles’ and ‘motorbikes’ , the laws are likely referring to gas-ICE motorbikes/dirt bikes/scooters, and not ebikes. Other references to ‘motorized bicycles’ or ‘motorized vehicles’ sound more inclusive and probably are intended for either ebikes or gas mopeds. If in doubt, you always have the option to pedal unassisted by completely powering your bike down. Even though Federal law grant ebikes a bicycle status, the common consensus found in my research allows local and state law to add additional regulation to pathway and road access, just because “it has a motor”. So the Federal laws protects the consumer from the burden of motor vehicle requirements, but not the restrictions to local and state right of ways enjoyed by all non-motored bicycles.

It appears Tennessee has not passed any legislation that applies to electric bicycles. Some people think the laws pertaining to a Motorized Bicycle should be used for an electric bicycle. However, a Motorized bicycle would be a gasoline powered device per state law as it is defined as "means a vehicle with two (2) or three (3) wheels, an automatic transmission, and a motor with a cylinder capacity not exceeding fifty cubic centimeters (50cc) which produces no more than two (2) brake horsepower and is capable of propelling the vehicle at a maximum design speed of no more than thirty miles per hour (30 mph) on level ground." [56]
Connect the battery to the speed controller and the throttle. Follow the instructions included with the kit to connect each part. Typically, you’ll only need to plug the connector on the speed controller into the connector on the battery, then repeat the process for the throttle. Be sure not to touch the battery wires together, as this could create a dangerous spark! [14]
There is a lot of information on the internet about electric bikes. Hopefully you have found lots of useful information right here, on this website. Based on this information, you may already have a preference for a specific electric bicycle and / or (technical) components. Your friends that ride e-bikes can also advise you based on their own experiences. But there is only one way you will know if you really make the right choice: take a test drive. During a test drive you will discover how close the riding experience is to your expectations.

One of the profound economic implications of bicycle use is that it liberates the user from oil consumption.(Ballantine, 1972) The bicycle is an inexpensive, fast, healthy and environmentally friendly mode of transport. Ivan Illich stated that bicycle use extended the usable physical environment for people, while alternatives such as cars and motorways degraded and confined people's environment and mobility.[105] Currently, two billion bicycles are in use around the world. Children, students, professionals, laborers, civil servants and seniors are pedaling around their communities. They all experience the freedom and the natural opportunity for exercise that the bicycle easily provides. Bicycle also has lowest carbon intensity of travel.[106]

To legally operate a motorized bicycle or electric-assisted bicycle the operator must be licensed, the motorized bicycle/electric-assisted bicycle must be registered in one of the following definitions and meet the required safety equipment. If the operator or the motorized bicycle/electric- assisted bicycle does not meet all requirements, they will not be legal for street/highway use (including the sidewalk).To qualify as a motorized bicycle under state law they need to have motor of a piston displacement capacity of 50 cubic centimeters or less, maximum of two brake horsepower, maximum speed of not more than Template:Convert on a flat surface, fully operable pedals for human propulsion are not required, but may be a part of the machine.
They also served to teach the industrial models later adopted, including mechanization and mass production (later copied and adopted by Ford and General Motors),[76][77][78] vertical integration[77] (also later copied and adopted by Ford), aggressive advertising[79] (as much as 10% of all advertising in U.S. periodicals in 1898 was by bicycle makers),[80] lobbying for better roads (which had the side benefit of acting as advertising, and of improving sales by providing more places to ride),[78] all first practiced by Pope.[78] In addition, bicycle makers adopted the annual model change[76][81] (later derided as planned obsolescence, and usually credited to General Motors), which proved very successful.[82]
In full-electric mode, the Pedego City Commuter Classic Electric Bike is capable of moving at up to 20 mph for anywhere from 15 to 30 miles. There are two further options: power-assisted pedaling or fully "unplugged” riding. Renowned Shimano gears are easy to select. Seldom do we come across a product so universally praised by owners. It's not cheap, but comments like "Everything I hoped for!" and "Outstanding!" tell us that it's money well spent.

Cargo bikes and city bikes are common in the e-bike space, but until recently we haven’t seen that many performance road bikes. The Giant Road E+1 is a pedal-assist performance road bike that’s made for more than just commuting; the powerful motor can crank you up to 28 mph very quickly on the highest setting so you can rip the flats, join your local group ride, or blast through the mountains with far less effort than a traditional road bike. It won’t feel like a 16-pound race bike when you lean it into high-speed turns, but the endurance-oriented geometry allows for an aggressive position on the bike and keeps it nimble and agile at high speed.
Simple, convenient, cheap, and economical—bicycles are one of the world's favorite forms of transportation. But they're not for everyone. They can be hard to pedal up and down hills or with heavy loads, and elderly or disabled people may find them impossible to manage. In the last few years, a new generation of electric bicycles has begun to revolutionize our idea of environmentally friendly transportation. These new cycles have all the convenience of cars with all the simple economy of ordinary cycles. Let's take a closer look at how they work.
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