By 1898 a rear-wheel drive electric bicycle, which used a driving belt along the outside edge of the wheel, was patented by Mathew J. Steffens. Also, the 1899 U.S. Patent 627,066 by John Schnepf depicted a rear-wheel friction “roller-wheel” style drive electric bicycle.[7] Schnepf's invention was later re-examined and expanded in 1969 by G.A. Wood Jr. with his U.S. Patent 3,431,994. Wood’s device used 4 fractional horsepower motors; connected through a series of gears.[8]
We rode the Vado through the gauntlet, including some of the steepest hills in Palo Alto, and it easily handled everything we threw at it, maintaining a steady 20 miles per hour even on the most daunting of ascents. The bike also handles well on downhills and is both nimble and quick on city streets and paved trails. It’s even comfortable to ride for extended distances, which is vitally important for any bike built for urban settings.

A Kalkhoff Pedelec is a lot more than simply bolting a motor onto a great bike. Their electric-assist bicycles utilize a brushless DC motor system that is lightweight, precisely-controlled, efficient, low-maintenance, and reliable. The Panasonic drive system is center drive, meaning that it's designed to be in the middle of the bike for a low center of gravity, stability and an easy integration with the drivetrain. The drive unit is more than just a motor; it also has a torque sensor and controller unit as well - all in the weatherproof casing, surrounding the motor. The torque sensor and the controller senses how hard you're pedaling and adjusts how much assistance the motor gives you through the drive sprocket.

"Bargain Buys" Most electric bikes priced less than $600 at big box retailers and on-line are aimed at the kid/teen/toy market. They generally lack the performance and durability that people want and expect. Also, parts and service can be problematic with both big box retailers and on-line vendors. We urge you to invest in a quality e-bike, preferably from a local dealer, that will serve you (and others) for many years. Remember, if it's poorly constructed and you can't get repair parts, it will likely become land-fill material. Save, beg, or borrow the money to get a quality bike or kit.
E-bike usage worldwide has experienced rapid growth since 1998. In 2016 there were 210 million electric bikes worldwide used daily.[33] It is estimated that there were roughly 120 million e-bikes in China in early 2010, and sales are expanding rapidly in India, the United States of America, Germany, the Netherlands,[2] and Switzerland.[34] A total of 700,000 e-bikes were sold in Europe in 2010, up from 200,000 in 2007 and 500,000 units in 2009.[35]
Electric Bikes Are Now Legal on Pennsylvania Roadways! Breaking News... According to the Bicycle Access Council of PA in their November 2014 News and Digest, Electric-Assist bicycles are now legal on Pennsylvania roadways as part of Act 154. "Electric-Assist bicycles are now legal on Pennsylvania roadways as part of Act 154. In a convoluted way since first introduced in 2010, a last minute amendment was introduced by Representative Kevin Schreiber (D-95) with...
There are two main types of motor to suit different riding styles. The durable, "heavy duty" Direct-Drive motor, and the lightweight, efficient and fast "performance" geared motor. Electric Bike Motors, hub motors in particular, and electric bike batteries are what make electric bicycles go. Using a hand throttle you control the flow of electric current from the battery to the brushless motor. With an intelligent 20 Amp controller regulating the...
Shell Eco-Marathon Americas Competition 2015 1st and 2nd Place Winners Both Used an Electric Bike Technologies Hub Motor! The Mater Dei Supermileage 3 Team of Mater Dei High School, in Evansville, Ind., took the top spot in the Battery-Electric Prototype category. The team built a vehicle using an electric bike motor from Electric Bike Technologies USA and won the electric plug in class at the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Shell Eco-Marathon Americas. They...
Yuba Bicycles invents, designs and manufactures Utility Bikes and Electric Cargo Bikes to meet today's transportation needs and environmental challenges. They offer maximum utility and comfort whether you are a young Mum dropping kids off to school or an entrepreneur using the bike for business purposes. The Yuba Bicycles line is acclaimed and enjoyed all around the globe for its affordability, ride quality, the quality of the accessories.

You know the saying, “What you see is what you get?” That’s pretty much the case here: An e-bike or "pedal-assist" bike is a pedal bike with an integrated electric motor that adds power when you pedal. It's not like a motorcycle, moped, or motorbike, because it doesn't have a throttle or engine. Think of it like when you get the rocket boost in Mario Kart (except it lasts for more than three seconds).

Not all e-bikes take the form of conventional push-bikes with an incorporated motor, such as the Cytronex bicycles which use a small battery disguised as a water bottle.[44][45] Some are designed to take the appearance of low capacity motorcycles, but smaller in size and consisting of an electric motor rather than a petrol engine. For example, the Sakura e-bike incorporates a 200 W motor found on standard e-bikes, but also includes plastic cladding, front and rear lights, and a speedometer. It is styled as a modern moped, and is often mistaken for one.[citation needed]
Because they’re electrically powered, e-bikes sit in a bit of a gray area between bicycles and motorcycles. While some states have enacted specific legislation to state where electric bikes can and can’t be ridden, in other states outdated laws mean they’re regulated as a moped or motor vehicle which can cause confusion over registration requirements, access to cycling infrastructure and how old you have to be before you can ride one.
Certainly not for the entry-level e-bike buyer, those who need to strap cargo to their back now have a new option with the Riese & Muller Load option, with full cargo space on the front of the bike. While over $6,000, the full-suspension bike has adjustability to allow for differing loads. Safety features include LED headlights and premium components abound.
Most consumers want an e-bike that will accommodate its motor without being too cumbersome and will remain stable in spite of its electronic components. Some consumers want only the most basic of e-bike features, including lights, a cargo rack/basket, and a water bottle holder. Others are focused more heavily on safety features, such as brake type. And still others are concerned with convenience and portability.
{"id":1455239921730,"title":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only)","handle":"sondors-x-us-canada-shipping-oct18","description":"\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#cc0000\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#990000\" style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eAmerica's favorite electric bike has been taken to the eXtreme. \u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003eAvailable now with END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING \u003c\/span\u003e. SONDORS X 48V 17.5 Li-ion battery nearly doubles your range, and when paired with a 500 watt motor, it offers extreme torque, towing capacity and hill-climbing power never-before seen in a SONDORS. Now, \u003c\/span\u003eSONDORS X also includes SONDORS Air Shocks, our highest-performance, shock-absorbing, suspension forks which provide better handling, improved cornering capabilities, and an overall smooth-as-air riding experience. And, with speeds up to 20 mph, SONDORS X is sure to add smiles to your miles. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003eOrder now and your SONDORS X will ship end of October 2018\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X FRAME\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSONDORS X 17.75” frame is one-size-fits-most, made from 100% durable, lighter-weight, aluminum. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X BATTERY\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSONDORS X battery is a proprietary design and the largest capacity battery ever offered by SONDORS. 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Measuring in at a chunky 26 x 4.9 inches, SONDORS X \"fat tires\" keep it sturdy and versatile while conquering pavement, sand, dirt or snow.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X LCD SCREEN \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSONDORS X comes with an LCD screen upgrade  - this feature supplies five levels of electric pedal assist plus added torque for increased hill-climbing power, greater range, and improved towing capacity. 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SONDORS X is sure to inspire confidence as it rolls in with conviction at a total approximate weight of 70 pounds. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSHIPPING AND DELIVERY INCLUDED (OCTOBER\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e 2018)\u003c\/strong\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eYou can rest assured, each component of your new SONDORS is carefully wrapped in heavy-duty protective materials and packed with love in our famous SONDORS ultra-thick, 7-layered \"motorcycle-grade\" box. The purchase of your new SONDORS includes hand delivery to your door via U.P.S. ground shipping for oversized packages within the contiguous United States.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePLEASE NOTE:\u003c\/strong\u003e Shipments to Alaska, Hawaii and Canada will incur an extended area surcharge at checkout. (Alaska and Hawaii: $59.00 \/ Canada: $99.00 USD)\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eIMPORTANT:\u003c\/strong\u003e All SONDORS shown here are available for delivery in \u003cstrong\u003eU.S. and Canada ONLY. \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#c92323\"\u003eFor SONDORS available in E.U., Norway and Switzerland, visit \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#c92323\"\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/sondors.com\/collections\/europe\" style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003eSONDORS Europe Collection\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e","published_at":"2018-07-22T11:41:41-07:00","created_at":"2018-07-16T07:06:12-07:00","vendor":"SONDORS Electric Bikes","type":"Electric Bike","tags":["500W","aluminum","aluminumframe","aluminumframe48V","Battery","ion","lithium","lithiumion","sondors","steel","steelframe"],"price":149900,"price_min":149900,"price_max":149900,"available":true,"price_varies":false,"compare_at_price":null,"compare_at_price_min":0,"compare_at_price_max":0,"compare_at_price_varies":false,"variants":[{"id":12717491159106,"title":"Black Matte \/ Black","option1":"Black Matte \/ Black","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"796","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":{"id":3894659350594,"product_id":1455239921730,"position":1,"created_at":"2018-07-23T02:27:48-07:00","updated_at":"2018-10-01T05:51:11-07:00","alt":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only) - SONDORS Electric Bikes","width":1024,"height":650,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_Black-Black.jpg?v=1538398271","variant_ids":[12717491159106]},"available":true,"name":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only) - Black Matte \/ Black","public_title":"Black Matte \/ Black","options":["Black Matte \/ Black"],"price":149900,"weight":226796,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_quantity":29,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":""},{"id":12717498761282,"title":"White \/ Black","option1":"White \/ Black","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"797","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":{"id":3894659514434,"product_id":1455239921730,"position":2,"created_at":"2018-07-23T02:27:51-07:00","updated_at":"2018-10-01T05:51:11-07:00","alt":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only) - SONDORS Electric Bikes","width":1024,"height":650,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_White-Black.jpg?v=1538398271","variant_ids":[12717498761282]},"available":true,"name":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only) - White \/ Black","public_title":"White \/ Black","options":["White \/ Black"],"price":149900,"weight":226796,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_quantity":47,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":""},{"id":12717498794050,"title":"Silver \/ Blue","option1":"Silver \/ Blue","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"798","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":{"id":3894659416130,"product_id":1455239921730,"position":3,"created_at":"2018-07-23T02:27:49-07:00","updated_at":"2018-10-01T05:51:11-07:00","alt":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only) - SONDORS Electric Bikes","width":1024,"height":650,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_Silver-Blue.jpg?v=1538398271","variant_ids":[12717498794050]},"available":true,"name":"SONDORS X (END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING - US\/Canada Only) - Silver \/ Blue","public_title":"Silver \/ Blue","options":["Silver \/ Blue"],"price":149900,"weight":226796,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_quantity":14,"inventory_management":"shopify","inventory_policy":"deny","barcode":""}],"images":["\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_Black-Black.jpg?v=1538398271","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_White-Black.jpg?v=1538398271","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_Silver-Blue.jpg?v=1538398271"],"featured_image":"\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/1439\/6088\/products\/products_X7_-_Black-Black.jpg?v=1538398271","options":["Color"],"content":"\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#cc0000\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#990000\" style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eAmerica's favorite electric bike has been taken to the eXtreme. \u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003eAvailable now with END OF OCTOBER SHIPPING \u003c\/span\u003e. 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Unique to SONDORS, this 48 V 17.5Ah lithium-ion battery boasts Panasonic, LG or Samsung cells and the SONDORS patented triangular shape, making it ingeniously slender, lightweight, and a perfect fit for SONDORS X.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X MOTOR\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSONDORS X proudly boasts power never-before seen in a SONDORS. Paired with SONDORS X 48 V 17.5Ah lithium-ion battery, this 500W motor offers eXtreme hill climbing, acceleration, and towing capacity to power your daily adventure. And with speeds up to 20 mph, SONDORS X will bring smiles to your miles. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X 7- SPEED SHIFTER \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eGenuine Shimano® 7-Speed gear cassette with grip shifter. This feature gives SONDORS X an additional 7 gears for increased hill-climbing power, further range variation, and greater terrain adaptability. 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In addition, the LCD screen provides a digital display offering accurate battery level, speed and distance traveled.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X RANGE\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith the use of the included SONDORS X 48V 17.5 Ah lithium-ion battery along with electric pedal assist, many riders can experience a varied battery range of up to 40-60 miles*. 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SONDORS X is sure to inspire confidence as it rolls in with conviction at a total approximate weight of 70 pounds. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch4\u003e\n\u003cstrong\u003eSONDORS X \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSHIPPING AND DELIVERY INCLUDED (OCTOBER\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e 2018)\u003c\/strong\u003e\n\u003c\/h4\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eYou can rest assured, each component of your new SONDORS is carefully wrapped in heavy-duty protective materials and packed with love in our famous SONDORS ultra-thick, 7-layered \"motorcycle-grade\" box. The purchase of your new SONDORS includes hand delivery to your door via U.P.S. ground shipping for oversized packages within the contiguous United States.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cmeta charset=\"utf-8\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePLEASE NOTE:\u003c\/strong\u003e Shipments to Alaska, Hawaii and Canada will incur an extended area surcharge at checkout. (Alaska and Hawaii: $59.00 \/ Canada: $99.00 USD)\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eIMPORTANT:\u003c\/strong\u003e All SONDORS shown here are available for delivery in \u003cstrong\u003eU.S. and Canada ONLY. \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#c92323\"\u003eFor SONDORS available in E.U., Norway and Switzerland, visit \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#c92323\"\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/sondors.com\/collections\/europe\" style=\"color: #990000;\"\u003eSONDORS Europe Collection\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e"}
I picked this bike because it’s definitely one of the lowest cost 28mph bikes out there that is still high quality. Magura MT4 hydraulic disc brakes keep you good and safe. The geometry provides a comfortable ride. Personally, I don’t always think a suspension fork is totally necessary since they are less efficient. If you’ve got a pretty smooth road to ride this is a great option.
There are two basic categories of electric bike, and their uses don't offer equal crossover value. The first category is essentially a normal bicycle that has been outfitted with an electric motor. These bikes are the same size as a standard bicycle, and handle almost identically, save for the obvious benefit of added motive power thanks to a motor and battery.
Motor: We have a blog post showing some motor differences: https://www.ebikekit.com/blogs/news/its-whats-inside-your-motor-that-counts Cabling is probably the #1 issue when something goes wrong. Good connectors, good cables, and good assembly (bike shop!) are crucial Strain reliefs on all cable joints! Where you have a junction box or a connector, the stress is concentrated over a small area near this stiff spot on the cable. This can cause small breaks on the internal...

Features:Non-toxic,non-odor that is safe using.Widely using for electric bikes, bicycles,mountain bikes and more.High efficient electric core.Large capacity design.Professional replacement battery.Metal safety protective safety lock,easy disassembly and installation of battery.Repetitive discharge test,anti-collision and wrestling.Descriptions:It so lightweight which is so portable to be taken.Novel appearance and stable output.The input is more stable and the service life is longer.Specifications:Size:380*90*87mmPackage Size:410*190*140mmColor:silver & blackVoltage:36V Battery Capacity:10AH Max constant discharger current:15AMax current:45ACharger:2ABattery Type:Lithium batteryPackage included:1x Replacement Battery1x Battery holder1x Power Su.
The National Institute for Transportation and Communities believes ebikes remove barriers to cycling, such as physical limitations and challenging topography. The results of a recent survey “indicate that, by reducing the physical demands on the rider, e-bikes are encouraging more people to replace car trips with bike trips,” it says. The survey found that 37 percent of frequent cyclists and 27 percent of non- or seldom-cyclists who bought an ebike now primarily use their ebike to commute to work, an encouraging sign for transportation officials who want to increase bicycle commuting. (May 18 is National Bike to Work Day.)
Kalkhoff's electric-assist bicycles start with the same high-quality, sleekly designed bikes that Kalkhoff has been developing for 90 years. A state-of-the-art, brushless, centrally-located motor provides a smooth, predictable power-assist directly to the drive train. Kalkhoff e-bikes come fully-equipped with a variety of features to ensure that your commute, shopping trip, or outing is safe, comfortable and fun.

The complete integration of the Optibike is achieved from the ground up with a disign focused on high performance, safety, and ease of operation. Front and rear long travel suspension with disc brakes gives the rider confidence. The fully integrated package gives the utmost in convenience allowing the rider to ride on road, off road and the up or down the steepest hills. Optibike is in a class of its own. The Monocoque frame has sleek styling and a low center of gravity for stable handling. All electronics and long-running battery are safely housed inside the frame.


Motor: We have a blog post showing some motor differences: https://www.ebikekit.com/blogs/news/its-whats-inside-your-motor-that-counts Cabling is probably the #1 issue when something goes wrong. Good connectors, good cables, and good assembly (bike shop!) are crucial Strain reliefs on all cable joints! Where you have a junction box or a connector, the stress is concentrated over a small area near this stiff spot on the cable. This can cause small breaks on the internal...


Thank you Clean Republic for coming to my rescue when I had a battery issue last year. Under Warranty at 11.5 months, they without hesitation sent me an entire new $355 Battery pack when mine began to fail. I've gotten so much life, miles, and usage out of my Hill Topper from this first one and am about to replace the batteries again from so much more love on them. Seems the hub motor is going to last forever and that's what counts! Thanks guys! :)

For those looking to hit the trails instead of the pavement, Yamaha has you covered with their new YDX-TORC electric-assist bicycle, which is powered by a souped-up version of their mid drive known as the Yamaha PW-X center drive motor system, which the company claims offers the extra power needed for more adventure and exploration on the trails, including a fifth power assist setting. As a more powerful e-bike, the YDX-TORC also demands a higher price of $3,499.
Pedelecs are much like conventional bicycles in use and function — the electric motor only provides assistance, for example, when the rider is climbing or struggling against a headwind. Pedelecs are therefore especially useful for people in hilly areas where riding a bike would prove too strenuous for many to consider taking up cycling as a daily means of transport. They are also useful for riders who more generally need some assistance, e.g. for people with heart, leg muscle or knee joint issues.
A letter from Casey Evans to Electric Bike Technologies, makers of the E-BikeKit™ electric bike conversion kit system. This one of kind adaptive electric stroller was designed by students from California State University-Sacramento using two 500w direct-drive hub motors controlled by a single E-BikeKit system. Thank you for enabling me to take my daughter hiking! My name is Casey Evans and my daughter, Montel, was born with a very rare...
All three road bikes receive their power from Yamaha’s PWSeries SE motor that comes with four levels of support: ECO+, ECO, STANDARD, and HIGH. The mid-drive motor supplies a maximum of 70 Nm (52 ft-lbs) of torque and cadence support up to 110 rpm. The motors are designed to provide assistance up to 20 mph (32 km/h). Any faster, and it’s all you providing the power.
After you decide which style of e-bike you want, consider the class. In the US, there are three classes defined by the type of assist and how fast the motor will propel you. Most electric bikes sold are class 1 or 3. Class 1 bikes have a motor (max 750w) that assists while you're pedaling, up to 20 mph. Class 3, also known as “speed pedelec” can also have up to a 750w motor, but it can assist you up to 28mph. Both of those are allowed in most states and cities without license. Class 2 have throttles that don't require you to pedal to get a boost. They're allowed on most streets, bike lanes, and paths, but less popular than the other classes and not covered much here (because we still love to pedal and the greater distances pedal assist bikes can cover).
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