In a parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned 1897 invention by Hosea W. Libbey, human and motor inputs are mechanically coupled either in the bottom bracket, the rear wheel, or the front wheel, whereas in a (mechanical) series hybrid cycle, the human and motor inputs are coupled through differential gearing. In an (electronic) series hybrid cycle, human power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional electricity is supplied from a battery.
What does this mean for anyone with Stark Drive that was backed with greater then a 250W motor? Quite simply, it means that as long as you have not modified Stark Drive in any way, and depending on your local countries regulations (if they differe with this EU Standard) you are now able to use your bike legally in your location no matter where you are in the EU.

The body is made from light and durable aluminum. The handlebar comes with simple controls to let you accelerate, brake, monitor battery life, operate headlights and of course…sound the horn. There’s even an USB point that will let you charge your iPhone or Android on the go. The bike can reach a top speed of 10mph. Feel the wind in your hair as you zoom up and down hills and past all that city traffic…
There are two basic categories of electric bike, and their uses don't offer equal crossover value. The first category is essentially a normal bicycle that has been outfitted with an electric motor. These bikes are the same size as a standard bicycle, and handle almost identically, save for the obvious benefit of added motive power thanks to a motor and battery.

The Nobby Nic tires would work equally well on road, loose dirt, gravel, fire roads, or anything of the like really. The hardtail geometry also isn’t so aggressive that it would be uncomfortable over long distances. Of course, comfort over long distances is key during bike touring. Even though the bike does not come with a rear rack, it does have eyelets for mounting. A rear rack should allow you to carry plenty for a 3-5 day excursion.

This dexterous electric dirt bike is recommended for anyone over the age of 14. It’s fitted with double suspension and big tyres to help you tackle tough terrain. You also get a good selection of gears, that gives you optimal control. The Razor can go as fast as 15 mph on average, and comes with an excellent braking system. The aesthetics are on point, and the racer look is sure to impress. Don’t forget your helmet!

You should be extra aware about your local regulations as in many countries an L1e-A certified bike needs to be registered and insured (be sure to consult your local laws and rules) and with registration comes the security that the bike can be tracked if it is stolen or misplaced. This approval that we have received is European Union wide and even those countries that are not part of the EU but rather EEA do adopt similar regulations in order to keep the market common but you will need to consult with your authorities. We will detail more about the registration process in an upcoming blog post but if you have any questions you can email us and we will respond in kind.


Riese & Müller have built their bikes to be masters of bike touring. They are some of the only electric bikes that offer a dual battery setup. This means that you are going to be able to go double the distance without recharging. This capability is truly invaluable during a bike tour. On Bosch motors, this takes you from 500 watt hours to 1000 watt hours. There are not any motors offering that type of battery range.

Using an electric bike for long-distance touring has its pros and cons. The motor will help carry the extra weight of your kit, particularly on the hills, but you have the added hassle of having to charge the battery every night. You’ll want a powerful motor and a good battery, though if you’re fully loaded, don’t expect to achieve the maximum advertised range.

E-bikes are classed according to the power that their electric motor can deliver and the control system, i.e., when and how the power from the motor is applied. Also the classification of e-bikes is complicated as much of the definition is due to legal reasons of what constitutes a bicycle and what constitutes a moped or motorcycle. As such, the classification of these e-bikes varies greatly across countries and local jurisdictions.
“First, Taiwan and China have been building almost all the bikes for the entire world for the past 30-40 years. They have ecosystems and two generations of tradesmen that result in the best bikes in the world. Look at all the top brands—Giant, Specialized, Cannondale— they all make their top end bikes in China and Taiwan. Even look at the Italian brands and you’ll see they build their frames in China and Taiwan and paint them in Italy.”

Torque sensors and power controls were developed in the late 1990s. For example, Takada Yutky of Japan filed a patent in 1997 for such a device. In 1992 Vector Services Limited offered and sold an e-bike dubbed Zike.[9] The bicycle included NiCd batteries that were built into a frame member and included an 850 g permanent-magnet motor. Despite the Zike, in 1992 hardly any commercial e-bikes were available.


"Electric bikes are great for giving you an extra boost and a bit more zip for when you're a bit low on energy," says two-time Olympic gold winner Victorian Pendleton. "E-bikes are also a fantastic route into cycling for beginners, or for those returning to cycling, as they provide a helping hand when it comes to conquering physical fitness challenges." 

Thousands of people have discovered the electric bike smile just by trying out an electric pedal assist bike. So this year Subaru VeloSwap has partnered with the Colorado Electric Bikes Expo sponsored by BEST electric bike USA. There will be an entire area just dedicated to showcasing electric bikes. You can view and experience the latest brands, styles, and new  technology in the world of electric bikes.  Reps will be available to show you how they work &  answer questions. This is a great opportunity for you to see, and learn about, and even ride all the top brands of electric bikes.   On hand will be brands like PEDEGO, EASY MOTION, HAIBIKE, RIESE & MULLER, MAGNUM, STROMER, BOSCH, YAMAHA,...
Controllers for brushed motors: Brushed motors are also used in e-bikes but are becoming less common due to their intrinsic lower efficiency. Controllers for brushed motors however are much simpler and cheaper due to the fact they don't require hall sensor feedback and are typically designed to be open-loop controllers. Some controllers can handle multiple voltages.
Cargo bikes and city bikes are common in the e-bike space, but until recently we haven’t seen that many performance road bikes. The Giant Road E+1 is a pedal-assist performance road bike that’s made for more than just commuting; the powerful motor can rank you up to 28mph very quickly on the highest setting so you can rip the flats, join your local group ride, or blast through the mountains with far less effort than a traditional road bike. Don't expect it to feel like a 16lb race bike when you lean it into high-speed turns, but the endurance-oriented geometry allows for an aggressive position on the bike and keeps the it nimble and agile at high speed.
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